Various Base Station (BS) Antennas
Characterize the antenna array elements through measurements and simulations
- Utilized a large non-reflective open antenna range for far-field testing. Due to the large size of the arrays, a sufficiently large distance between the antenna and the receiving horn antenna had to be provisioned. The horn antenna had to be calibrated for that distance.
- Built a heavy-duty remote-controlled rotating antenna stand for high-precision automated antenna pattern measurement process.
- Removed radomes. Identified and isolated the elements of interest.
- Connected coaxial 50Ω pig-tails to the inputs of each element.
- Isolated all ports from the arrays’ backplane signal distribution network
- Utilized a signal generator, a spectrum analyzer and a vector network analyzer (VNA) to capture measurement data.
- Performed radiation pattern measurements over each operating band in 5-degree steps in horizontal and vertical planes for both orthogonal polarization ports’ co-polarized field by completing a 360-degree azimuth sweep and a 360-degree elevation sweep in 5-degree steps.
- Prepared 2-D pattern plots at each required frequency band.
- Measured input impedance over the same operating bands using a calibrated VNA. Plotted Smith Chart and graph of reflection coefficient (return loss) vs. frequency.
- Simulation models using CAD and HFSS software products were created to represent each antenna element and its surrounding elements and structures. Simulations were run to calculate the resulting antenna patterns and return loss. Comparisons were made with antenna measurements performed earlier.
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